About the Journal

Journal Overview

The Permanente Journal is a MEDLINE-indexed, peer-reviewed journal of medical science and social science in medicine published by The Permanente Press. Free full-text access is available online. We welcome submissions from all disciplines related to medicine.

The Permanente Journal (ISSN 1552-5775) publishes on a continuous online publication model.

The Permanente Journal conducts single-blinded peer review on all published articles and we strive for a 100-day decision-to-publication schedule with a goal of 30 days from completed submission to first decision.


The Permanente Journal advances knowledge in scientific research, clinical medicine and innovative health care delivery.

To continue and to grow the philosophy of Sidney Garfield, “The journal seeks to demonstrate to physicians in the community, and nationally, the quality of Permanente Medicine and the achievements within Permanente.”


The journal’s objectives include publishing original research, review articles, clinical case reports, commentaries, and editorials that maintain high standards of editorial integrity; that are timely, credible, and enjoyable to read on a diverse range of medical topics; that foster consideration of important issues affecting medicine, health, health care, health policy, and health care delivery; and that share a multidisciplinary study of medical practice and health care.


The Permanente Journal is indexed in MEDLINE, PubMed Central, EMBASE, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, and CrossRef.

Contact Us

For matters related to in-process manuscripts or questions about how to submit a manuscript:
Monica Leigh, Senior Managing Editor
The Permanente Journal


For all other matters, including press inquiries:


POSTMASTER, send all address changes to:

The Permanente Journal, The Permanente Federation
c/o Laura Fegraus
1 Kaiser Plaza
27th Floor
Oakland, CA, 94612



Editorial Board

Stephen Tarnoff, MD (Retired)
Editor in Chief (Interim)
Past President and Executive Medical Director
Washington Permanente Medical Group
Kaiser Permanente
Seattle, WA
University of Washington, School of Medicine
Seattle, WA


James J. Annesi, PhD, FAAHB, FTOS, FAPA
Professor, School of Health Professions
University of Alabama at Birmingham

Gus M. Garmel, MD, FACEP, FAAEM
Clinical Professor of EM (Affiliate), Stanford University
Senior Emergency Physician
Kaiser Permanente Santa Clara Medical Center
Santa Clara, CA

Philip I. Haigh, MD, MSc, FRCSC, FACS
Assistant Chief, Department of Surgery
Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center
Los Angeles, CA

Eric Macy, MD, MS, FAAAAI
Department of Allergy
Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center
Southern California Permanente Medical Group
San Diego, CA

David Riley, MD
Director, CARE - health research reporting guidelines for case reports
Founder, Scientific Writing in Health and Medicine and CARE-writer
Network Director, HSCaseRepRN case report preprint server (Elsevier)
Adjunct Professor, Maryland University of Integrative Health
Portland, OR

H. Nicole Tran, MD, PhD
Internal Medicine Physician, Department of Adult and Family Medicine
Director for Quality Improvement and Patient Safety, Internal Medicine Residency
Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center
Oakland, CA


Joshua Barzilay, MD
Endocrinologist, The Southeast Permanente Medical Group
Professor of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine
Adjunct Investigator, Center for Research and Evaluation, KPGA
Atlanta, GA


Somjot (Sam) Brar, MD MPH
Chief/Director, Regional Department of Cardiac Catheterization
Kaiser Permanente Medical CenterLos Angeles, CA
Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, UCLA
Los Angeles, CA


Carrie Davino-Ramaya, MD
Practice Leader and Methodologist of Guidelines and Evidence-Based Medicine
Department of Quality Management and Systems
Northwest Permanente, P.C.
Portland, OR


Kimberly L. Ferrante, MD, MAS
Division of Urogynecology
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Southern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Group
San Diego, CA


Lisa J. Herrinton, PhD
Research Scientist, Division of Research
Kaiser Permanente Northern California
Oakland, CA


Information Technology and Quality
Former National Project Director
Kaiser Permanente Clinical Technology
Marietta, GA
Health Technology Advisor
World Health Organization
Washington, DC
Board Chair, Global Clinical Engineering Federation

Raina Phillips, MD, FACP, FAAP
Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, The Southeast Permanente Medical Group
Adjunct Clinical Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Emory University
Atlanta, GA


Chunyuan Qiu, MD, MS
Director, Perioperative Service
Chief,  Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine
Kaiser Permanente Baldwin Park Medical Center
Baldwin Park, CA


Calvin Weisberger, MD, FACC, FACP
Partner Emeritus
Southern California Permanente Medical Group
Pasadena, CA


Scott S. Young, MD
Associate Executive Director, Clinical Care and Innovation
Senior Quality Director
The Permanente Federation
Oakland, CA
Senior Medical Director and Executive Director, Care Management Institute
Oakland, CA


Pat Zrelak, RN, PhD, FAHA, NEA-bc, CNRN, SCRN
Clinical Practice Consultant
Clinical Education, Practice, & Informatics
Kaiser Permanente
Sacramento, CA


Maher A Abbas, MD, FACS, FASCRS
Medical Director, Dubai Colorectal Center, UAE; Professor of Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio


Richard Abrohams, MD
Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, The Southeast Permanente Medical Group, Atlanta, Georgia


Fábio Ferreira Amorim, MD, PhD
Professor of Medicine, Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde in the Department of Postgraduate and Extension Activities, Brasilia, Brazil


Stanley W Ashley, MD
Chief Medical Officer, Brigham and Women’s Hospital; Frank Sawyer Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Attending Surgeon, Gastrointestinal Cancer Center, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts


Thomas Bodenheimer, MD
Professor, Dept of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco


Brian Budenholzer, MD
Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Family Medicine at the Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina


Anne Cambon-Thomsen, MD
Director of Research, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Paris; Researcher, Epidemiology and Public Health; Professor of Medicine University of Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France


Irene Carvalho, PhD
Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health Department, School of Medicine, Oporto University, Porto-Portugal, Oporto, Portugal


Shamir O Cawich, MBBS, DM
Department of Surgery, St Augustine Campus, University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago


Rita Charon, MD, PhD
Professor of Medicine, Founder and Executive Director of the Program in Narrative Medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York


Pranab Chatterjee, MBBS, MD
Scientist, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Infectious Diseases Hospital, Beliaghata, Kolkata, India


Dan Cherkin, PhD
Senior Scientific Investigator, Kaiser Permanente Washington, and Affiliate Professor, Dept of Family Medicine and School of Public Health—Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle


Mitsuro Chiba, MD, PhD
Department of Gastroenterology, Akita City Hospital, Kawamoto, Akita, Japan


Robert R Cima, MD, FACS, FASCRS
Professor of Surgery, Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery; Vice Chairman, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota


Ellen Cosgrove, MD
Vice Dean, Academic Affairs and Education, University of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Medicine, Las Vegas, Nevada


Quentin Eichbaum, MD, PhD, MPH, MFA, MMCH, FCAP
Associate Director of Transfusion Medicine; Associate Professor of Pathology; Associate Professor of Medical Education and Administration; Director, Fellowship Program in Transfusion Medicine; Member, Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health; Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee


Richard Frankel, PhD
Professor of Medicine and Geriatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis


Carol Havens, MD
Family Practice and Addiction Medicine, Director of Clinical Education, The Permanente Medical Group, Oakland, California

James T Hardee, MD
Internal Medicine, Colorado Permanente Medical Group; Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver


Arthur Hayward, MD
Assistant Clinical Professor, Division of General Medicine, Dept of Internal Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland


Catherine Hickie, MBBS
Director of Clinical Training, Bloomfield Hospital, Greater Western Area Health Service; Conjoint Senior Lecturer in Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Australia


Gunver Sophia Kienle, Dr Med
Senior Researcher, University of Witten/Herdecke, Institute for Applied Epistemology and Medical Methodology, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany


Anna Luise Kirkengen, MD, PhD
Department of General Practice Research, Institute of Community Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway


Thomas E Kottke, MD
Medical Director for Well-Being, HealthPartners; Consulting Cardiologist, HealthPartners Medical Group; Senior Clinical Investigator, HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research; Professor of Medicine, University
of Minnesota, Minneapolis


Lewis Mehl-Madrona, MD, PhD, MPhil
Director of Geriatric Education, Maine Dartmouth Family Medicine Residency; Director of Education and Training, Coyote Institute, Augusta, Maine


Colin G Murphy, MCh, FRCSI
Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Galway University Hospitals, Newcastle, Galway, Ireland


Michel M Murr, MD, FACS
Director of Bariatric Surgery, Chief of Surgery, Tampa General Hospital, Florida


Sylvestre Quevedo, MD
Department of Medicine and Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco


Ilan Rubinfeld, MD, MBA, FACS, FCCP, FCCS
Chief Medical Officer-Associate, Henry Ford Hospital; Surgical Lead and Inpatient Co-Lead, Project Helios: The Epic Clinical Integration and Transformation Team, Henry Ford Health System; Faculty Surgeon, Acute Care Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital; Associate Professor of Surgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan


Marilyn Schlitz, PhD
Chief Executive Officer of Worldview Enterprises, LLC, and Senior Fellow and President Emeritus at the Institute of Noetic Sciences in Petaluma, CA; Professor in and the Chair of the Doctor of Philosophy in Transpersonal Psychology program at Sofia University in Palo Alto, CA


Tido von Schoen-Angerer, MD, MPH
Researcher, ARCIM Institute, Filderstadt, Germany, Attending Physician, Department of Pediatrics, Fribourg Hospital, Switzerland


Audrey Shafer, MD
Professor of Anesthesia, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine/VAPAHCS; Anesthesiologist, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System; Director, Medicine and the Muse, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics, Palo Alto, CA


Mark Snyder, MD
Specialist Leader, Electronic Medical Record Implementation and Physician Adoption; Deloitte Consulting, LLP, McLean, Virginia


Swee Yaw Tan, MBchB (Edin), MRCP (UK), ACSM, FAMS
Senior Consultant Cardiologist, National Heart Centre, Adjunct Assistant Professor Duke National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore


William L Toffler, MD
Professor Emeritas of Family Medicine, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland


Joshua Barzilay, MD

Endocrinologist, The Southeast Permanente Medical Group

Professor of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine

Adjunct Investigator, Center for Research and Evaluation, KPGA

Atlanta, GA


Somjot (Sam) Brar, MD MPH

Chief/Director, Regional Department of Cardiac Catheterization
Kaiser Permanente Medical Center
Los Angeles, CA

Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, UCLA

Los Angeles, CA

Reprint Permissions

REPRINTFORMThe Permanente Journal welcomes requests for reprints and reproduction. Use of any and all material published in The Permanente Journal is copyrighted and protected. The Permanente Journal offers free full-text access for all online content.


Although individual sharing of content is permitted, reprint permission is required for republishing or reprinting journal content. Use as a handout, reprinting, republishing, adapting, or any other use, requires permission. Usage includes, but is not limited to;

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To obtain permission to republish, reprint, or adapt material published in The Permanente Journal, access and complete the online Reprint Permission Form.


If you have questions contact


Jennifer Kuhn, Publications Director
The Permanente Journal


Adapted material must be approved by The Permanente Journal, send a copy of adaptation to: tpj@kp.org. Allow 3-4 weeks for processing.


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